A brief history of the cooperative movement began in the 20th century, which generally is the result of the efforts that are not spontaneous and was not done by people who are very wealthy. Cooperatives grew from among the people, when suffering in the field of economic and social impacts of the capitalist system was mounting. Some people whose livelihoods simple with limited economic capacity, driven by the suffering and economic burden of the same, spontaneously unite themselves to help themselves and fellow human beings.
In such living conditions, the continued colonial-indigenous population so that the condition menerusmengintimidasi most rakyatsangat concern. In addition, the loan sharks, and leeches daratturut pengijon also disturb the atmosphere. They race to find a profit, and the farmers who are facing hardship, so tidakjarang forced to give up his property with respect to their inability to restore its debts to swell due to the implemented system pengijon blooming flowers.
In Indonesia, cooperative ideas first introduced by Patih in Navan, Central Java, R. Aria Wiraatmadja who in 1896 set up a Bank for Civil Servants. Ideals of the spirit is then forwarded by De Wolffvan Westerrode.
In 1908, Budi Utomo founded by Dr. Sutomo provide a role for the cooperative movement to improve the lives of the people. In 1915, regulations made Verordening op de Cooperatieve Vereeniging, and in 1927 Regeling Inlandschhe Cooperatiev.
In 1927, Islamic Trade Union was formed, which aims to fight pengusah-economic status of indigenous entrepreneurs. Then in 1929, Indonesia established the National Party fighting for the dissemination of cooperative spirit. Until now the concern of the government’s presence is evident by forming cooperative institutions that deal specifically with the promotion and development of cooperatives.
At the time of forming cooperative Dutch can not take place because:
1. There has been no government agencies or non governmental agencies that provide information and education about cooperatives.
2. There is no law that governs the life of the cooperative.
3. Colonial government was still hesitant because of political considerations encourage cooperative, the cooperative was concerned by the political will be used for purposes that are harmful to the colonial government.
In 1908, Budi Utomo founded by Dr. Sutomo provide a role for the cooperative movement to improve the lives of the people. In 1915, regulations made Verordening op de Cooperatieve Vereeniging, and in 1927 Regeling Inlandschhe Cooperatieve.
In 1927, Islamic Trade Union was formed, which aims to fight pengusah-economic status of indigenous entrepreneurs. Then in 1929, Indonesia established the National Party fighting for the dissemination of cooperative spirit.
However, in 1933 out of a similar Act of Law no. 431 so that the cooperative effort to shut down a second time. In 1942 Japan occupied Indonesia. Japan and establish cooperative kumiyai.
Initially the cooperative is running smoothly. However, its function changed dramatically and became a Japanese tool to make profits, and misery to the people of Indonesia.
After Indonesian independence, on July 12, 1947, the cooperative movement in Indonesia held the first Cooperative Congress in Tasikmalaya. Today then assigned as the Day of Cooperatives Indonesia. As Mr. Cooperative Indonesia, Bung Hatta had said his name was not cooperative when in it there is no education about Cooperative.
Cooperatives Congress I produced some important decisions, among others:
1. establish a cooperative organization of central Rakyat Indonesia (SOKRI)
2. establish mutual cooperation as a principle of cooperative
3. set on July 12 as the Day of Cooperatives
Due to pressure from various parties such as the Dutch aggression, Cooperatives Congress I have not been able to be implemented properly. However, on July 12, 1953, the Congress was held in Bandung Cooperative II, among others, took the decision as follows:
1. Form the Indonesia Cooperative Council (Dekopin) instead SOKRI
2. Establish cooperative education as one of the subjects at school
3. Raised Moh. Mr. Hatta as Cooperative Indonesia
4. Soon laws will be the new cooperative
Obstacles to the growth of cooperatives is partly due to the following:
1. public awareness of the cooperative are still very low
2. past experience mengakibtakan society still feel suspicious of the cooperative
3. knowledge about the co-operative society is still very low
To implement the cooperative program of government held a policy include:
1. encourage community economic development organizations, especially cooperatives
2. expand cooperative education and information
3. give credit to the producers, both in the field of agricultural industries that have capital and small.
Cooperative economic organizations, especially the people really need to be repaired. Entrepreneurs and farmers are often the weak ekononmi suction of the middlemen and moneylenders. How to help them was to establish a cooperative among them. Thus the government can channel assistance in the form of credit through the cooperative. To instill understanding and cooperative functions among the people held lighting and cooperative education cadres.